Congenital heart diseases are common may usually manifest in childhood or soon after birth. Newborns to elderly people can fall prey to heart disease. Congenital Heart Diseases are the kind of heart-related issues that persists from the time of birth. The term “congenital” is used to describe a condition that is present from birth. This umbrella term covers a wide range of ailments.
This Article Contains
Commonest Congenital Heart Diseases
Many congenital diseases is a condition that impairs a person’s physical development as well as their ability to survive a normal life. Alcohol and cigarette use during pregnancy, as well as certain diseases and drugs, all are contributing risk factors. The most common congenital heart diseases/defects are:
These are the commonest of congenital heart diseases. It comprises a hole in the middle of one of the heart walls that are called the septum. This septum divides the heart into different compartments called chambers of the heart. A hole is variable in size and mostly closes on its own with time. If it persists it will be closed with heart surgery. The commonest septal defects are Ventricular septal defect and atrial septal defect.
Aorta is the main artery of the heart. If it has narrowing somewhere in its course it is known as coarctation of the aorta that leads to compromised blood flow.
There are 4 valves in the heart. Pulmonary, Aortic, Tricuspid, Mitral. If there is a narrowing or blockage in any of these valves it leads to stenosis and compromised blood flow to the heart.
TETRALOGY OF FALLOT
This is a combination of various congenital heart diseases when combined known as teratology of Fallot leading to mixing of oxygenated blood with deoxygenated blood:
- Ventricular septal defect
- Pulmonary artery stenosis
- Right ventricular hypertrophy
- Overriding of aorta
TRANSPOSITION OF GREAT VESSELS
There will be a transposition of the aorta and the pulmonary artery. These both are the great and main arteries of the heart with different purposes. One carries the oxygenated blood the other carries the deoxygenated blood. If it occurs the wrong side of the heart receives the wrong type of blood which will comprise the heart’s oxygenation and function.
This is the type of congenital heart disease in which the pulmonary artery and aorta developed as one vessel. All the blood flow through this vessel only and it’s a mixture of good and bad blood, needs to be treated immediately.
Congenital Heart Diseases Symptoms
If the child has one of the congenital heart diseases these are the symptoms it may encounter:
- Shortness of breath
- Fast heartbeat
- Increase breathing
- Swelling of the body especially the face and ankles
- Blue discoloration of skin or nails
- Fainting with exertion
- Severe fatigue
Pediatric Heart Surgery For Congenital Heart Diseases
Many children require heart surgery for congenital heart diseases depending on the condition and severity. Few congenital heart defects appear right after birth and are incompatible with life.
In such instances, surgery will be performed to ensure the health of the child. In case, the surgery is a complicated one an open heart surgery is also opted for. Though cardiac arrest and heart attack are not so common among children there are cases reported due to congenital heart diseases.
Open heart surgery is performed with the help of a heart-lung bypass machine. Where the lung takes over the function of the heart to supply oxygenated blood throughout the body.
Open heart surgery is also performed to prevent cardiovascular problems like heart failure, arrhythmias, coronary heart attacks, and aneurysms. In case your child shows signs of any heart problems you can immediately reach out to a cardiologist who will run through a few tests and if required suggests the best pediatric heart surgeon in Coimbatore for further procedure.
USUAL STEPS OF OPEN-HEART SURGERY
- The specialist needs to open the chest through the cut through the breast bone called sternotomy.
- After the chest is opened, a section (or the entirety) of the thymus (organ beneath the skin) is taken out. The expulsion of the thymus is important to permit the specialist to see and work on the heart.
- The heart sits in a slender, cowhide-like sac called the pericardium. To gain admittance to the heart, the pericardial sac must be opened. The specialist regularly eliminates a little part of the pericardium, to be utilized later to fix openings in the heart or fix vessels to make them greater.
- The removed pericardial piece is utilized during the activity as fixed material for an assortment of openings or congenital heart diseases inside the heart.
- The rest of the procedure depends on the type of correction needed and the type of congenital heart disease.
PACEMAKER FOR IRREGULAR HEARTBEAT
You can always check the pulse of your child to see if any irregularities are noticeable. In case you happen to notice an irregular heartbeat, reach out immediately to a Cardiologist who can help you find the best pacemaker doctors in your city.
A pacemaker is a metal box-like device that utilizes electrical impulses to control the heartbeat and rhythm of the heart. A pacemaker is implanted in the body through heart pacemaker surgery. Pacemaker surgery is performed in people with Arrhythmia.
The electrical vibrations that regulate your heartbeats don’t work correctly, letting your heartbeat too fast, too slow, or periodically. The condition is when there is an interruption between the heart and the electrical impulse responsible for a heartbeat. This condition involves an irregular heartbeat and known as arrhythmia.
Pacemakers are placed to correct the rhythm of your heartbeat and let it beat in the same intervals. In children are set under the skin in one of a few areas. Small kids regularly have the pacemaker generator put in the midsection, since the greasy tissue found there can assist with shielding the generator from typical ordinary youth exercises like playing.
As a kid gets more established (approaching pre-adulthood), the generator is regularly positioned in the shoulder region, simply under the collarbone.
Heart pacemaker surgery is performed in a hospital or clinic where anesthesia is involved. In more seasoned youngsters and teens who get a transvenous pacemaker, a little cut is made simply under the collarbone.
The pacemaker is embedded into the heart through a vein that runs under the collarbone. This method is normally used in the catheterization research center. The pacemaker surgery is carried out by a pacemaker doctor.
Pacemakers help your kid to lead a normal life like everyone else. Temporary pacemakers can help up for 8 years or more. There are also permanent pacemakers that can be implanted depending on the condition.
In more youthful kids, the pacemaker might be put into the midsection through a little cut. A subsequent entry point is made in the chest to picture the heart. The lead is directed to the heart, then, at that point set on the heart’s surface. This system is typically operated in the working room.
When the system has been finished, the youngster goes through a recuperation time of a few hours and frequently is permitted to return home the day after the methodology.
The Bottom Line
Congenital heart diseases are common and treatable. You must watch your babies and children closely for any mentioned symptoms. Once you have seen any immediately consult your heart doctor (cardiologist) for further help and treatment.
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